This blog post will help you to explain the process of obtaining an immigrant visa through family sponsorship in simple terms.
Step 1: Petition Filing
Your US citizen family member needs to file a petition on your behalf. This is like an official request to the government stating that they want you to come and live with them in the US as a permanent resident. They need to submit the appropriate forms and documents to the United States Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS).
Step 2: Approval of Petition
After the petition is filed, the USCIS will review it. If everything is in order and your relationship with the US citizen family member is verified, they will approve the petition. This means that the government acknowledges your family member’s desire to bring you to the US as an immigrant.
Step 3: Wait for Priority Date
In some cases, there might be a wait for a visa number to become available. The US government has limits on how many people can immigrate each year, so you might need to wait until your “priority date” becomes current based on the type of family relationship you have with the US citizen sponsor.
Step 4: National Visa Center (NVC) Processing
When your priority date is getting close, your case will be sent to the National Visa Center (NVC). They’ll ask you to submit more documents, including forms, fees, and supporting papers. This helps them prepare your case for the next steps.
Step 5: Affidavit of Support and Fees
Your US citizen family member will need to prove that they can financially support you in the US. This involves filling out an “Affidavit of Support” form and providing evidence of their income. There might be some fees to pay as well.
Step 6: Consular Processing
Once everything is ready, your case will be sent to the US embassy or consulate in your country. They will schedule an interview for you. You’ll need to go to the embassy/consulate, take an immigration medical examination, and attend the interview. The purpose of the interview is to make sure you’re eligible for the visa and to verify your intentions.
Step 7: Visa Approval
If your interview goes well and your application is approved, you’ll receive an immigrant visa stamped in your passport. This means you’re allowed to enter the US as a permanent resident.
Step 8: Travel to the US
With your immigrant visa, you can travel to the US. When you arrive, you’ll go through immigration at the airport or border. The immigration officer will inspect your visa and documents and, if everything is fine, they’ll admit you as a permanent resident.
Step 9: Green Card
After arriving in the US, you’ll receive your actual green card (officially called a Permanent Resident Card) in the mail. This card proves your status as a permanent resident and gives you the right to live and work in the US permanently.
Remember, this is a simplified overview of the process, and there can be variations based on your specific situation and changes in immigration laws. It’s a good idea to consult official government resources and possibly an immigration attorney to guide you through the process accurately.
What is Consular Processing?
Consular processing is a crucial step in the immigration process for those who are applying for an immigrant visa from outside the United States. It’s a way for individuals who want to become permanent residents (green card holders) to complete the necessary steps and obtain their immigrant visas at a US embassy or consulate in their home country or the country where they currently reside.
Here’s a breakdown of what consular processing involves:
- Application Review: After your family member’s petition is approved by the United States Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS), your case is sent to the National Visa Center (NVC). The NVC will review your application and collect the required fees and documents.
- Document Collection: The NVC will request various forms and documents from you, such as passport copies, birth certificates, police clearance certificates, and any other documents that demonstrate your eligibility for the immigrant visa.
- Affidavit of Support: Your US citizen family member needs to fill out an “Affidavit of Support” form, providing evidence that they have the financial means to support you in the US and prevent you from becoming a public burden.
- Visa Application: Once the NVC has received all the necessary documents and fees, they will forward your case to the US embassy or consulate in your home country or where you’re residing.
- Interview: The embassy or consulate will schedule an interview for you. You’ll need to attend this interview in person. During the interview, a consular officer will review your documents, ask you questions, and assess your eligibility for the immigrant visa.
- Medical Examination: Before the interview, you will likely need to undergo a medical examination by an approved panel physician. This is to ensure that you don’t have any health conditions that would make you inadmissible to the US.
- Background Checks: The US government will conduct security and background checks on you to ensure you don’t have any disqualifying criminal or security issues.
- Visa Approval or Denial: Depending on the outcome of the interview and the officer’s assessment, your immigrant visa application will be approved, denied, or put on hold for further administrative processing.
- Visa Issuance: If your application is approved, the embassy or consulate will stamp the immigrant visa in your passport. This visa allows you to travel to the US as a permanent resident.
- Travel to the US: With the immigrant visa in hand, you can now travel to the United States. Upon arrival at a US port of entry, immigration officials will inspect your visa and documents, and if everything is in order, you’ll be admitted as a permanent resident.
- Receiving Your Green Card: Once you’re in the US, your actual green card (Permanent Resident Card) will be mailed to your US address. This card serves as official proof of your lawful permanent residency.
Consular processing is a significant step in the journey to becoming a permanent resident of the United States. It’s important to be well-prepared, provide accurate information and documentation, and follow the instructions from the US embassy or consulate carefully. If you have any doubts or concerns, consulting an immigration attorney can be very helpful.
What’s the difference between Consular Processing and Adjustment of Status?
Consular Processing and Adjustment of Status are two different paths to obtain lawful permanent residency (a green card) in the United States, and the main distinction lies in where the final processing takes place.
Consular Processing: Consular processing is used when an individual is outside the United States and wants to obtain an immigrant visa to enter the country as a permanent resident. Here’s how it works:
- Petition Approval: A US citizen or lawful permanent resident family member files an immigrant petition (such as Form I-130) on behalf of the foreign individual.
- National Visa Center (NVC): After the petition is approved, the case is transferred to the National Visa Center (NVC) for document collection and processing. The NVC prepares the case for the US embassy or consulate in the individual’s home country or country of residence.
- Consular Interview: The individual attends an interview at the US embassy or consulate. If approved, they are granted an immigrant visa, allowing them to travel to the US.
- Entry to the US: Once in the US, the individual becomes a lawful permanent resident. They’ll receive their actual green card in the mail after arriving.
Adjustment of Status: Adjustment of Status is an option available to individuals who are already in the United States on a nonimmigrant visa (such as a student or work visa) and wish to transition to permanent residency without leaving the country. Here’s how it works:
- Petition Filing: A US citizen or lawful permanent resident family member files an immigrant petition (such as Form I-130) on behalf of the foreign individual.
- Form I-485: After the petition is approved and a visa number is available, the individual files Form I-485, which is the Application to Register Permanent Residence or Adjust Status.
- USCIS Processing: USCIS reviews the I-485 application and schedules a biometrics appointment for fingerprinting and background checks.
- Adjustment Interview: In some cases, the individual might be required to attend an adjustment interview. This is more common if there are concerns or issues that need clarification.
- Green Card Issuance: If the application is approved, the individual receives their green card through the mail.
- Location: Consular processing is completed at a US embassy or consulate outside the US, while adjustment of status is done within the US.
- Travel: With consular processing, the individual needs to travel to the US after receiving an immigrant visa. With adjustment of status, the individual is already in the US and doesn’t need to leave the country.
- Timing: Consular processing might take longer due to visa availability and embassy/consulate processing times. Adjustment of status might offer more predictability in terms of processing time.
- Eligibility: Not everyone is eligible for adjustment of status, particularly those who entered the US without inspection or have certain immigration violations.
- Processing Environment: Consular processing involves interviews at embassies/consulates, which can vary in terms of procedures and experiences. Adjustment of status interviews are usually conducted by USCIS officers.
The choice between consular processing and adjustment of status depends on various factors, including an individual’s current location, immigration status, and personal circumstances. It’s important to consult an immigration attorney or carefully review official USCIS guidelines to determine the best path for your specific situation.
What immigration forms must be filled during Consular Processing?
During the consular processing of an immigrant visa, several forms need to be filled out to facilitate the application and interview process at the US embassy or consulate. The specific forms required can vary based on the type of visa you’re applying for, your relationship to the sponsoring family member, and other individual circumstances. However, here are some commonly used forms that might be part of the consular processing:
- Form DS-260, Immigrant Visa Electronic Application: This form is typically the main application for an immigrant visa. It gathers information about the applicant’s personal, employment, and family history. It’s completed online through the Consular Electronic Application Center (CEAC) website.
- Form I-864, Affidavit of Support: This form is filled out by the US citizen or permanent resident family member who is sponsoring the applicant. It demonstrates their financial ability to support the immigrant and prevent them from becoming a public charge.
- Form DS-261, Choice of Address and Agent: This form is used to provide contact information and designate someone as your agent, if applicable.
- Form I-864A, Contract Between Sponsor and Household Member: This form is used when a sponsor’s income isn’t enough to meet the financial requirements, and they rely on the income of another household member.
- Form I-864EZ, Affidavit of Support Under Section 213A of the INA: This is a simplified version of Form I-864 that can be used under certain circumstances.
- Form I-601, Application for Waiver of Grounds of Inadmissibility: If the applicant is found inadmissible for certain reasons (such as health or immigration violations), they may need to file this form to request a waiver.
- Form I-601A, Application for Provisional Unlawful Presence Waiver: This form is used when an applicant needs to request a waiver for unlawful presence before attending the consular interview.
- Form I-864W, Intending Immigrant’s Affidavit of Support Exemption: This form is used to request an exemption from the affidavit of support requirement for certain immigrants.
- Other Forms: Depending on your specific situation, you might need to fill out additional forms related to your background, medical history, and other relevant factors.
It’s important to note that the required forms and their numbers can change, and new versions might be released. Therefore, it’s crucial to visit the official website of the US embassy or consulate where you’ll be applying for the visa and follow their specific instructions. Additionally, you should carefully read the form instructions, provide accurate and truthful information, and ensure that all necessary supporting documents are submitted along with the forms. If you’re unsure about which forms to use or how to fill them out, consulting an immigration attorney can be very beneficial wotpost.